digital integrated circuit design

espandiDigital integrated circuit design

Codice identificativo insegnamento: 095264
Programma sintetico:

Introductory concepts and background
- A historical perspective: from vacuum tube to transistor and IC era Issues in digital integrated circuit design
- Implementation strategies for Digital ICs: Custom design and standard-cell based design
- Quality metrics of a digital circuit (cost of an integrated circuit, functionality and reliability, static and dynamic performance, power and energy consumption).

The devices:
- MOSFET transistor as switch
- Static and dynamic behavior
- Velocity saturation and unified model
- Mismatch and process variations
- Technology scaling

The wire:
- Interconnect parameters (capacitance, resistance and inductance)
- Electrical wire model (ideal wire, lumped model, lumped RC model, distributed rc line, P and T model)
- Elmore theorem
- Effects of scaling of wires and impact on the overall performances.

The CMOS inverter:
- The static CMOS inverter (switching threshold, noise margins, robustness revisited);
- Dynamic behavior (computing the capacitances, propagation delay)
- Power consumption (dynamic, cross-conduction, leakage)
- Power- and energy-delay product
- Inverter chain and optimum number of inverters in a chain with a capacitive load
- Technology scaling and its impact on the digital circuit metrics.

Combinational logic gates:
- Fully-complementary CMOS logic
- Sutherland theory on the dimension of FC-CMOS gate chain
- Ratioed logic, i.e., pseudo-NMOS logic and differential cascode voltage switch logic (DCVSL)
- Pass-transistor logics, i.e., LEAP (LEAn Integration with pass-transistors), Swing Restored Pass Transistor Logic (SRL), Complementary Pass-transistor Logic (CPL)
- Transmission gate
- Dynamic logic (basic principles, speed and power dissipation of dynamic logic, signal integrity issues in dynamic logic, cascading dynamic gates, domino gates)
- Domino logic and relative issues
- Differential domino logic and NORA

Sequential logic circuits:
- Latches and flip-flops as basic sequential element
- Timing metrics for sequential circuits
- Static latches and flip-flops (the bistability principle, multiplexer-based latches, master-slave edge-triggered flip-flops, Low-Voltage Static Latch, Static SR flip-flop with pure force writing)
- Dynamic latches and flip-flops, i.e., basic topology, C2MOS latch, True Single-Phase Clocked (TCSP) flip-flops
- Pulsed flip-flops
- Pipelining as approach to optimizing sequential circuits
- Finite state-machines (FSMs), counters asynchronous and synchronous
- Timing classification of digital systems (synchronous, mesochronous, plesiochronous, asynchronous)
- Synchronous design, self-timed circuit design, synchronizer and arbiters

Arithmetic circuits:
- Datapath in digital signal processor
- The adder (half-adder and full-adder)
- Circuit implementation of single-bit adder (static implementation, mirror adder, CPL,
- Multi-bit adder (ripple carry, carry-skip, linear carry-select, root-square carry-select, carry-lookahead)
- Multipliers (array and carry-save multiplier) 2’complement form of signed numbers
- Digital comparators, subtractors, equality circuits.

Semiconductor memories:
- Memory classification
- Memory architectures and building blocks
- Read-only memories (ROM), NOR and OR ROM architectures
- Nonvolatile read-write memories (EPROM, EEPROM, flash)
- Static RAM with resistive load, 6T static RAM
- Dynamic RAM (1T, 3T), open and folded bit line architecture
- Memory peripheral circuitry (address decoders, sense amplifiers, voltage references, drivers/buffers).

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